Anthony J. Iantosca, BCFE
Advanced Statement Analysis
Paul Grice's Conversational Maxims
To better understand how people deceive each other in an oral or written
statement, it would help for people to understand how a typical conversation
works. Paul Grice is a famous scholar, noted that all conversations follow a
basic set of rules, people use to express themselves.
Paul Grice's rules called "maxims" are at work every time we talk to
someone. Without these rules conversations would be impossible to have.
What are the implicit rules we follow when talking to others?
Maxim of Quantity
Make sure your contribution to the conversation as informative as
Do not make your contribution to the conversation more informative than
Maxim of Quality
Do not say what you believe to be false.
Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence.
Maxim of Relevance
Be relevant (say things related to the current topic of the
Maxim of Manner
Avoid obscurity of expression
Be brief (avoid unnecessary wordiness).
As can be seen, Grice's rules are important, we follow these rules when we
want to be explicitly clear and direct.
We also exploit these four basic rules when people are trying to deceive
each other. There are many ways to lie, a direct blatant lie (most people try to
avoid a bold faced lie, especially when facts can be easily checked). Weaving a
lie within a truthful statement, lying by omission.
Most times than not people will lie by omission, this lie does not make
people feel as guilty. Since they are telling you some truth but leave out a few
"Remember a half
truth is a whole lie."
If I can help you when you are trying to detect deception, I will be happy to work with you.
My EX. is 01155
Anthony Iantosca, BCFE